By Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)
Methods, simply as ailments or scientists, have their very own historical past. it can be crucial for scientists to pay attention to the genesis of the tools they use and of the context within which they have been developed.
A historical past of Epidemiologic tools and Concepts is predicated on a set of contributions which seemed in "SPM foreign magazine of Public Health", beginning in January 2001. The contributions specialise in the old emergence of present epidemiological equipment and their relative value at diverse time cut-off dates, instead of on particular achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues corresponding to cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung melanoma. The papers current the layout of potential and retrospective stories, and the thoughts of bias, confounding, and interplay. The compilation of articles is complemented via an advent and reviews through Prof. Alfredo Morabia which places them within the context of present epidemiological research.
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Additional info for A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts
This example underlines the conceptual evolution between Farr and Miettinen, but does not fully reflect the richness of the theory developed underneath. 5. Prevalence and incidence We have seen that prevalence measures the accumulation in the population of events (exposures or diseases) that occurred in the distant or recent past, while incidence is a predictive statement about cases-to-be in a population still free of the disease. The two concepts are closely related and their relationships have been explored at least under two different perspectives: a) the relation of incidence to prevalence of disease; b) the relation of (excess) incidence to prevalence of exposure.
Louis grouped those first bled during days 1 to 4 of the disease (early bloodletting) and those bled for the first time during days 5 to 9 after the onset of the disease (late bloodletting). The two groups of patients were of comparable age. 8 days). However, risk of death was 44% in the patients bled during the first 4 days of the disease compared to 25% among those bled later. These results ruled out the strong protective effect of early bleeding claimed by Broussais. According to Louis "a startling and apparently absurd result" (Louis, 1836, p.
Rose demonstrated that, for diseases such as coronary heart disease or stroke, the majority of the cases occur among subjects at low risk of disease. Why is this so? Because low-risk constitutions for chronic diseases are usually much more common than high-risk constitutions. The histogram in Figure 2 (corresponding to Figure 3 of Rose's paper) shows the prevalence of various categories of serum cholesterol levels in 246 men aged 55-64 at the baseline examination of the Framingham Heart Study. The way the numbers were obtained is shown in Table 8.
A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts by Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)