By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

ISBN-10: 9024715237

ISBN-13: 9789024715237

ISBN-10: 940102426X

ISBN-13: 9789401024266

It is hard for us this day to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, was once at one time thought of to be if now not an evil at the very least a futile goal, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adversarial be­ reason it's going to disturb an equilibrium as very important as that of a development. within the heart a while merely the Church was once capable of search for new contributors on the backside of the social ladder, due to the fact ecclesiastical workplace used to be now not inherited by way of start. yet efforts during this path have been inevitably very restricted, whether in simple terms as a result of the fabric hindrances to such an goal. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other kind of equality couldn't also be imagined by way of the aristocracy whose very life might were threatened. Its preliminary indifference was once via lively competition. whilst it grew to become attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the main itself met with a primary objection. The ruling category, idle by means of its very nature, feared that the staff and particularly these at the land could abandon their efficient labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.

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8 milliDn in 1968,57 and according to' various forecasts the number is very likely to double by the year 2000. In Poland in 1939 the national economy employed more than 70000 intellectual workers. 25% of the educated population were killed during the war, and 25% emigrated, but in 1963 they numbered 2 100000 and today about 3 000 000. In Hungary there were 317000 non-manual workers in 1941,400000 in 1949,1136000 in 1968 and 1 287000 in 1970. 58 This process is above all due to the transformation of the economic structure, predominantly agricultural societies becoming industrialized societies, developing their tertiary sector at the same time.

20 It was at that time that a ten-year period of general education was instituted with almost the sole purpose of preparing pupils for higher education the principle task of which was to train specialists. "We must not restrict ourselves to fonning communist managers in a general way, Bolshevik coolies knowing a little about everything. Dilettantism and eclecticism have become chains which we must throw off. " Such were the aims of Stalin before the reform (d. J. V. Stalin, Works, vol. 2, Moscow 1949 p.

Evidently 1955 was the crucial year: the percentage Df students Df working-class Drigin had drDpped to its lowest proportiDn, to the benefit of children of the intelligentsia. After 1955 the opposite process took place at the expense of the intelligentsia but above all to the benefit Df the working class grDUPS, the peasants barely managing tD maintain their percentage, already low. The right-hand side of the table is even mDre expressive. Until 1955 the great majority Df students came directly from secDndary schools.

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Access to Education: New Possibilities by Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

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